With rising oil prices, energy security concerns, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are becoming increasingly important as renewable fuel sources. Biofuels are fuels derived from recently living biomass like plants and agricultural or forestry residues. Here are some of the major reasons why biofuels are gaining significance globally:
Energy Security - Biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel help reduce a country’s dependence on imported petroleum and improve energy security . Domestically produced biofuels can supplement traditional transportation fuels.
Environment - Biofuels burn cleaner than fossil fuels and emit fewer greenhouse gases linked to climate change . Widespread use can help nations meet emissions reduction targets under international agreements.
Rural Development - Biofuel production provides new income sources and markets for rural economies. Farmers benefit from producing feedstocks like corn, sugarcane, oilseeds etc. .
Waste Reduction - Biofuels can utilize waste materials like crop residues, forest debris, and even municipal solid waste as feedstocks . This provides an avenue to convert wastes into usable energy.
Major Types of Biofuels
Ethanol - Made by fermenting sugar or starch from crops like corn, sugarcane, wheat, cassava etc. Used as a gasoline substitute or additive .
Biodiesel - Produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, algae oils, or cooking greases. Used in place of or blended with diesel fuel .
Biogas - Generated from anaerobic digestion of organic matter including manure, sewage, crop residues, food waste etc. Composed of methane and carbon dioxide .
Biohydrogen - Produced through biological water splitting processes using certain algae and bacteria . Used to power fuel cells in vehicles potentially.
Biobutanol - Made by fermenting crops like corn and sugar beets. Has a higher energy content than ethanol .
Biofuels allow countries to harness local biomass resources to meet transportation fuel needs while achieving environmental and economic benefits. With continued research and policy support, sustainable biofuels can play a major role in the global energy mix of the future.
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 Pimentel & Patzek (2005) - Comparative study of corn, switchgrass and wood [ethanol production] and soybean, sunflower [biodiesel production]. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11053-005-4679-8
 Khanna et al. (2008) - Assessed [costs of producing] miscanthus and switchgrass for bioenergy in Illinois. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0961953407002063
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